October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month, an annual international health campaign organised by major breast cancer charities to increase awareness of the disease and to raise funds for research into its cause, prevention, diagnosis, treatment and cure.
The campaign also offers information and support to those affected by breast cancer. A variety of events around the world are organized in October, including walks and runs, and the pink illumination of landmark buildings.
Regular checking of your breasts is hugely important for all women and the article which we are re-publishing below is a very useful guide, originally published by the Irish Cancer Society in 2015.
(First Published June 2015: Irish Cancer Society)
It is important that every woman is breast aware. This means knowing what is normal for you so that if any unusual change occurs, you will recognise it.
The sooner you notice a change the better, because if cancer is found early, treatment is more likely to be successful. Get into the habit of looking at and feeling your breasts from time to time. This will help you to notice any change if it occurs.
How to check your breasts
It is important that every woman is breast aware. This means knowing what is normal for you so that if any unusual change occurs, you will recognise it. The sooner you notice a change the better, because if cancer is found early, treatment is more likely to be successful. Get into the habit of looking at and feeling your breasts from time to time.
Changes to be aware of
a change in size or shape – it may be that one breast has become larger
changes in the nipple – in direction or shape, pulled in or flattened nipple
changes on or around the nipple – rash, flaky or crusted skin
changes in the skin – dimpling, puckering or redness
'orange peel’ appearance of the skin caused by unusually enlarged pores
swelling in your armpit or around your collarbone
a lump, any size, or thickening in your breast
constant pain in one part of your breast or armpit
Techniques for checking your breasts
Look for changes by using a mirror so that you can see the breasts from different angles.
Feel for changes: An easy way of feeling your breast is with a soapy hand in the bath or shower. Some women prefer to feel for changes while lying down.
The 5 point breast awareness code:
Know what is normal for you
Know what changes to look for
Look and feel your breasts
Discuss any changes with your GP without delay
Attend for routine breast screening if you are aged between 50 and 64
Know what is normal for you
It's important to know what is normal for you. Your breasts will go through many normal changes during your life. For example, they are affected by changes in your hormones during your menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast feeding and menopause.
Your menstrual cycle
Each month, when you are having periods, your breasts often change. They can become bigger, tender and lumpy usually before a period starts and return to normal once the period is over. Some women, however, may have tender, lumpy breasts throughout their cycle.
Pregnancy & breast-feeding
The changes that occur during your menstrual cycle continue during pregnancy. While breast-feeding, your breasts may be very enlarged, firm and tender; this is normal at this time. However, you should continue to check your breasts and discuss any unusual changes with your GP.
After the menopause your breasts will feel softer and they may get bigger or smaller. If there is a change in only one breast, you should discuss this with your doctor. HRT hormone replacement therapy may cause your breasts to feel firmer and quite tender.
Questions to ask your GP if you have noticed a change in your breasts
If your GP refers you for investigation or tests, ask
Why are you referring me for investigation?
Can I be referred to a specialist breast clinic?
How quickly will I be seen?
Is my referral urgent or non-urgent?
Which tests will I need (ultrasound, mammogram,biopsy) and why? Ask about Triple Assessment.
If your GP does not refer you for tests, ask
Can you explain why you’ve decided not to refer me to a breast specialist?
How can you be sure I don’t have breast cancer?
If you're diagnosed with breast cancer, ask
What is the type and extent of the breast cancer?
What’s my prognosis?
What are my treatment options and how soon can they start?
Should I continue taking HRT or the Pill?
Are there any changes I should make to make to my lifestyle (diet, exercise, smoking)?
Will I be able to carry on working?
Are my female relatives at a higher than average breast cancer risk?
Can I have tests to find out if the cancer has spread to other parts of my body?
Are there any clinical trials that I might be able to participate in
What services does this hospital provide to help me through this?
Who can I telephone later if I’m worried about diagnosis and treatment?